Horse reproductive system


It includes the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, oviducts and ovaries Figure 1. Changes in the anatomy or interruption in the function of any section can contribute to reproductive problems.

The vulva is the exterior opening to the reproductive canal. It consists of the labia, clitoris and the vestibule. The construction of this region is important because it serves to protect the mare from the entrance of air and other contaminants into the vaginal vault.

The vagina consists of a 6- to 8inch long muscular, mucus membrane lined tube which connects the vestibule of the vulva to the cervix. The vaginal tissues must be extremely elastic and distensible to accommodate the penis in breeding and the foal during birth.

Basically a highly distensible muscle, the cervix is approximately 4 inches long and appears as a circle of folded tissue at the anterior surface of the vaginal vault. In response to increased estrogen produced during estrus, the cervix appears pink due to increased vascularity. During this period, it produces thin, watery mucus and is so relaxed that it is often found lying limp on the vaginal floor.

This flaccid cervical tone facilitates passage of semen during live cover or breeding instruments with artificial breeding. In contrast, when the cervix is under the influence of progesterone during the diestrous period and pregnancy, it produces a thick, sticky mucus, and is tightly closed and held in the center of the vaginal wall. The physical barrier produced by a healthy cervix provides a major line of defense against uterine contamination and infection.

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Consequently, damage to this structure can result in significant problems in maintaining fertility Figure 2. This is a multi-layered, hollow, Y-shaped organ. The base of the Y is called the uterine body, while the two branches are called the horns. The uterus is suspended within the body cavity by two tough, sheet-like structures called the broad ligaments. Sagging of these ligaments with age, parity or trauma can cause a downward tilting of the uterus.

This conformation can predispose the mare to the backwash of urine urine pooling into the reproductive tract and its accumulation at the cervix. Urine pooling can cause uterine infection and poor fertility.

The uterus is composed of three distinct layers. The outermost, serous layer is continuous with their broad ligaments. The middle layer, myometrium, consists of two sheets of muscular tissue, one oriented longitudinally and one circularly.

The myometrium is responsible for the powerful contractions which expel the foal at birth. The endometrium is the innermost layer. It is a complex mucosal membrane containing a rich blood supply and many glands.Office Opening Hours. In an emergency. During office hours. Our office in Malton is open 8. Out of office hours you will get an automated message, if you press 1 you will be automatically diverted to the vet on call.

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Upgrade your browser for a faster, better, and safer web experience. Zachary Mutai scratches the lip of Najin, one of the last two northern white rhinos left in the android 8 get ssid, at the Ol Pejeta Conservancy, Kenya, April In his lab in Cremona, northern Italy, the scientist beckons us closer and screws the lid off a liquid nitrogen canister. He affords us a glimpse at its precious cargo: a brace of northern white rhino embryos.

Decades of poaching and habitat loss have reduced the numbers of northern white rhinos from a population of thousands to just two. As both remaining rhinos are female, Galli and BioRescue — the international consortium of pipette-wielding scientists and conservationists he works with — represent the only barrier between a creature that has walked the Earth for five million years and extinction. A scientist at the Avantea laboratory experiments with a rhino oocyte cell.

Galli is the founder and director of Avantea, an Italian biotech firm specialising in advanced animal reproduction. ICSI is ue4 online subsystem google the most widely used technique for artificially inseminating humans, and Galli has spent several years adapting the method for rhinos — first with the Sumatran and southern white varieties, before turning his attention to the precious northern white.

He is in no doubt about the size or importance of the task. The Avantea laboratory in Cremona, Italy, where they have created northern white rhino embryos via artificial insemination. The future of her kind now rests with her. Najin and Fatu are mother and daughter. They are kept behind three electric fences at the Ol Pejeta Conservancy in central Kenya, protected at all times by a squad of armed rangers.

Unperturbed by the wider implications of their imminent extinction, their days follow a simple and uneventful routine. They wake at around six each morning in their cosy, straw-bedded pen. For the next three hours they can be found grazing in their 2. Once it gets too hot, they have their fill of water and lie down to rest, only to resume eating when the sun dips.

Najin, who is 32, seems to adore him stroking her behind her ears and along her flank. But after years of spending more time with them than with his own family, Mutai seems unconcerned.

He coos to them gently and enthusiastically narrates their every tic and habit to us. Even a burst of rhino flatulence prompts whoops of fatherly pride. When the ranch started expanding into wildlife preservation, I jumped at the opportunity to get a job. At first I oversaw the electrical fence maintenance, but I rose to the position of head caregiver to the rhinos. I have been doing this for over ten years. Mutai directs our gaze to a flock of ostriches practising sprints.We cannot process tax exempt orders online.

If you wish to place a tax exempt order please contact us. Practical information includes topics such as breeding with transported cooled or frozen semen, and caring for the broodmare and newborn foal.

The organization of material corresponds to the course of study in veterinary school, so you can find topics easily. Chapter objectives and study questions at the beginning of each chapter guide you through the material and provide clear learning goals. Evaluation of Breeding Records chapter covers the importance of breeding records, and how to use them to evaluate stallion performance and optimize fertility.

References are listed at the end of each chapter for further research and study. Reproductive Anatomy of the Mare 2. Reproductive Physiology of the Nonpregnant Mare expanded chapter! Manipulation of Estrus in the Mare expanded chapter! Breeding Soundness Examination of the Mare 5. Transrectal Ultrasonography in Broodmare Practice 6. Endometritis 7. Pregnancy: Physiology and Diagnosis 8. Pregnancy Loss 9. Management of the Pregnant Mare Dystocia and Postparturient Disease Routine Management of the Neonatal Foal expanded chapter!

Examination of the Stallion for Breeding Soundness Semen Preservation Surgery of the Mare Reproductive Tract Surgery of the Stallion Reproductive Tract Embryo TransferBoth sexes have a pair of sexual organs or gonads ovaries or testesthe main function of which is to produce eggs or sperm, respectively. Ovaries are female gonads that produce eggs and female sex hormones, including estrogen and progesterone.

These hormones are necessary for the development of eggs and preparation of the uterus for pregnancy. Once puberty is reached and the horse starts to have its heat estrous cycle, the size and form of the ovaries change. Within the ovary, a group of special cells form a follicle, which surrounds each egg. The estrous cycle begins when follicle stimulating hormone causes follicles to grow, leading to maturation of eggs and production of the hormone estrogen.

Estrogen causes the brain to release luteinizing hormone, which stimulates the release of eggs from the ovary a process called ovulation. After ovulation, the follicle becomes a corpus luteum, which produces progesterone.

Progesterone causes the mare to go out of heat and prepares the uterus for pregnancy. If the mare does not become pregnant, the corpus luteum is destroyed and the mare returns to heat. Testes are male gonads that produce sperm and male sex hormones. Sperm maturation is stimulated by the production and release of follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone.

Testosterone is required for proper function of the accessory sexual glands, male sex characteristics, and sexual behavior. For sperm production, the testes must descend into the scrotum a pouch of skin outside the abdomenbecause regular body temperature is too high for sperm to develop normally. The function of the testicles can be assessed by an evaluation of semen samples and hormonal tests. In addition, testicle examination and measurement may reveal reproductive diseases.

The female genital tract includes the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, oviducts, and ovaries. The oviducts are small tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus. The end of the uterus is called the cervix. It separates the uterus from the vagina and provides a barrier against infection. The vagina a muscular tube that extends from the cervix to the outside is connected to the vulva skin surrounding the opening of the vagina.

The vulva is the external opening of the female genitals. After ovulation, eggs are transported to the uterus via the oviducts. Secretion of protein-rich fluid in the oviducts provides a proper environment for survival of the mature egg, fertilization, and the first few critical days of embryonic life.

Proper functioning of the uterus and cervix are also required for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Infections contracted at mating are common causes of female infertility because they interfere with the proper function of the uterus. Infertility in females can be diagnosed through various means, including physical examination, ultrasonography, hormonal tests, uterine culture, and biopsy of the uterine lining.

The vagina and vulva serve as the copulatory organs and as the last part of the birth canal. Mares that have poor function of the vulva and vagina may be prone to recurrent contamination of the reproductive tract, leading to the development of chronic uterine infections and infertility.

In males, the genital tract provides a pathway for sperm cells and semen. The testicles produce sperm and testosterone the main male hormone.

Sperm pass from the testicles into the epididymis, where they mature and are stored. The epididymis is connected to the ductus deferens, which carries sperm to the urethra. The accessory sex glands, such as the prostate and seminal vesicles, create the fluid portion of semen. Abnormalities of the genital tract can be diagnosed by physical examination or ultrasonography. A semen evaluation can provide information regarding the quality and quantity of sperm and can give some estimate of fertility.The management of heterozygous carriers one normal gene, one HERDA gene; no disease expression seems to be most challenging.

Homozygous Tobiano and W20! It is a disease that even a single carrier can exhibit symptoms and some go along without any issues.

Horses that have HERDA are born with a defect in the structure and function of collagen, a component of tissues such as … Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia HERDA is a degenerative genetic disease of the skin primarily found in the American QH.

Description: Collagen makes up connective tissues skin, bones, tissue, muscles and cartilage. Typical onset is around 2 years of age.

The disease HERDA has an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance and has become a significant concern in the Quarter Horse industry due to the high frequency of heterozygote carriers.

Prices for yearlings and 2 year olds were through the roof. Concentrations of hydroxylysine, the rate limiting substrate for these crosslinks were significantly lower in HERDA versus control and carriers.

Equine reproductive physiology, breeding and stud management.

Summary Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia HERDA results from a genetic mutation which affects the skin and other tissues of Quarter Horses and horses with Quarter Horse lineage. This is indicated by hyper-extensible skin that begins sloughing off. There was a lawsuit filed against the owner and others including the repro center of a stallion who was a carrier for HERDA, similarly a genetic defect, claiming that the owner published a clear status for his stallion knowing he was a carrier.

Within the breed, the disease is prevalent in particular lines of cutting horses Poco Bueno. If someone has a stallion that is a carrier they must reveal it to their potential client considering breeding.

The large wounds that result from this tearing are painful and like most wounds on horses carry a substantial risk of infection. He was a carrier. It has a white-increasing effect when it is inherited in combination with other white marking genes, particularly sabino 1 and the other W genes. The disease is characterized by severe lesions and scarring along the back and withers. Affected horses suffer from hyperextensible skin that is easily torn and results in badly healing wounds and atrophic scars.

The goal of our program is to provide the cutting horse industry with impeccably-bred prospects that will continue to honor the sought after traits As long as a carrier is bred to a HERDA gene free individual, the offspring cannot develop the disease. He has produced elegant, but quiet minded sport horses that compete in English and Western events from reining and cutting to dressage and jumping.

The mutation in Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia HERDA is a skin disease with changes of the collagen fibres in Quarter horses. Born inPoco Bueno was a successful cutting horse. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency of Arabian foals is a fatal disease caused by the lack of B- and T-lymphocytes. These foals cannot produce B and T lymphocytes, which are special types of white blood cells that are vital for a healthy immune system.

Connective tissue becomes elastic and weak. While the mutation has … The working hypothesis for HERDA in horses is that there is a defect in the structure or healing process of the collagen fibers in the middle to deep part of the dermis. Skin disease characterized by hyperextensible skin, scarring, and severe lesions along the back of affected horses.

We hy-pothesize that carrier horses may have a performance Knowing a horse's carrier status would not influence my decision unless there was a specific stallion I knew I wanted to breed her to who was also a carrier for that gene. If you are breeding a carrier stallion, you need to.

Problems in Equine Reproduction

The increased prevalence of successful carriers has also raised the question of the HERDA mutation being linked to an increased Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia HERDA is a debilitating genetic condition that affects mainly Quarter Horses. HERDA is different in that by knowing status and selecting against it, no affected horses need to be born.Discomfort in farm animals may be induced by inappropriate types or timing of food supplies. Thus, time restriction of meals and lack of roughage have been shown to be one source of emergence of oral stereotypies and abnormal behaviour in horses which have evolved to eat high-fibre diets in small amounts over long periods of time.

This feeding pattern is often altered in domestic environment where horses are often fed low fibre meals that can be rapidly consumed. The total amount of roughage provided was the same as the CF mares received half of the hay during the day while in paddock haynets. Mares were tested for oestrus detection by teasing with one stallion and were then examined clinically by rectal palpations and ultrasound before being mated naturally or inseminated by fresh or frozen semen.

Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse data. Ensuring semi-continous feeding by providing roughage may be a way of fulfilling the basic physiological needs of the horses' digestive system, reducing stress and associated inhibitors of reproduction. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of an impact of temporal feeding patterns on reproductive success in a Mammal.

Temporal patterns of feeding may be a major and underestimated factor in breeding. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Dr Ezzaouia was affiliated to this company. Many field observations and induced-stress studies showed that at least acute stress events may impair reproduction efficiency in sheep [1][2][3][4]cattle [5]rhesus monkey [6][7]rodents [8][9][10] and human [11][12].

This may lead to reduced oestradiol production by slower growing follicles [13]. However, effect of stress on reproduction may involve factors other than hormones. Davis and ColeIn [14] found that decreased concentrations of ascorbic acid that have been later associated with stress [15] reduce breeding efficiency in the mare.

Chronic stress may also been induced by inappropriate types or timing of food supplies. Thus, time restriction of meals and lack of roughage have been shown to be one source of emergence of oral stereotypies and abnormal behaviour in horses [21][22][23].

Gastric ulcers are frequent in domestic horses [24] which may be due to the lack of roughage and the time spent with an empty stomach [25]. Gastric discomfort may occur if the stomach is empty for one or two hours in this species [26] due to a digestive system adapted to foraging for long hours on high fibre diets [27].

Previous studies have shown that inadequate nutrition or body condition had major effects on different breeding parameters in mares [33][34]but the processes involved are not known [35]. In different species of birds, duration and time of food availability have been shown to influence males' gonadic growth [36]. Therefore we hypothesized that providing semi-continuous feeding to breeding mares may also improve their reproduction efficiency by in particular reducing the discomfort of time limited feeding opportunities.

Two groups of mares were constituted that differed only by the feeding time schedule: hay at night for the standard feeding pattern group SFP mareshay at night and day for the continuous feeding mares CF mareswhile the total amount provided was kept alike. As mares were in group in a bare paddock during the day, hay was provided in the CF group through haynets hung at the fences same number as the number of mares. Mares are brought to this facility every year in order to be bred with the stallions housed there.

They were housed in individual boxes at night where they received barley grains 4kg per day and hay 10 kg per day, see further every morning and evening 4 p. They were released every day from 9 a.

No food was available then but some freshly cut grass was left on the ground around 12 a. Mares had been present at the stud for 1 week at least and 3 weeks at most. They were housed all the time in individual boxes before the experiment. None had been bred for the ongoing season on the 1 st April A plastic name tag attached to a collar was used for the identification of each mare.

All the mares were clinically healthy, in good body conditions lifan generator dealers reproductively sound at the beginning of the experiment. All the mares were kept in individual boxes for the night under the same management conditions.

However, the CF mares received 5 kgs hay only in the evening while in the box, so that both standard feeding pattern and experimental animals had access to the same total amount of food and differed only in their temporal distribution 6 hours more access to hay for the CF mares.

The horses' owners gave full permission to the Director of the facility, Dr Ezzaouia, to proceed to any study including this one. Dr Ezzaouia is co-author of the manuscript. All management issues of the horses were under control of the facility, the high density of animals is usual in the facility and was not designed for the research purposes.

Oestrus was detected once every 48 hours by teasing with a stallion in early morning. The female genital tract includes the. Ovary - the primary sex organ of the mare. The ovary produces the ovum (egg) to be fertilized and serves as an endocrine gland producing the hormones estrogen. The mare's reproductive tract lies in a horizontal position within the abdominal and pelvic cavities. It includes the vulva, vagina, cervix. The mare's reproductive system is responsible for controlling gestation, birth, and lactation, as well as her estrous cycle and mating behavior.

It lies ventral. In horses, pregnancy is characterized by high levels of maternal estrogens that are produced largely by the interstitial tissue inside the. The male reproductive system in the horse consists of testes and the accessory genital organs that include penis and prepuce. Mare Reproductive Tract Chart – Equine Network Store Equine Uterus Model | Horse Reproductive System | RealityWorks.

The female reproductive system contains 2 ovaries, uterus, cervix and a vagina. Ovaries contain the female gametes which in form is the mares. Mares have two ovaries. The ovaries are situated in the dorsal (upper) part of the abdomen, just behind the kidneys. The ovaries are the female. Dec 1, British Vets Hope to Expand Equine Reproduction Research Fossilized Mare Sheds Light on Reproductive Tract Evolution.

Female Reproductive Anatomy. Uterus. Hollow Y shaped gravity forms elavon including uterine body. Influenced by? Hormones. Function is to. Reproductive organs of the mare. (From: Evans, The Horse ). Fallopian tube. Uterine horn opened to show arrangement of muscosal folds. A lateral view (from the side) of the mare's reproductive tract. kidney. broad ligaments.

uterine body. Infundibulum. ovary. Fallopian tube. uterine horn. Dourine is an important parasitic disease affecting horses [6,7,8,9] and is caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum. In contrast with other. FIGURE 1: The mare's reproductive system. Reproductive anatomy of the mare. Equine Reproduction. A Guide for Farmers and Small Breeders.

Economic considerations of the equine breeding business make it necessary for However, the mare's reproductive system (oviduct and uterus) usually. Equine reproductive physiology, breeding and stud management. the anatomy and function of the reproductive system of the stallion, including the penis. The topics this week will focus on equine reproduction. cycles of mares and jennies, followed by common breeding systems used throughout the world.

Athletic horses have the best reproductive organ conformation and do not require sacrificing calories to stay alive. They can dedicate all necessary energy. Horses, on the other hand, fall into a category where it is much more chancy. at the reproductive organs of both the mare and the stallion.